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德國內閣批準《退煤法案》終稿

文章來源:iGDP碳交易網2020-07-21 08:27

圖片說明:德國退煤進程年度計劃去除的煤電產量(褐煤和硬煤) 圖片來源:每日頭條
 
據歐洲動態(EURACTIV)6月25日報道,德國內閣于周三(6月24日)對《退煤法案》進行了最后修改,旨在將這一攬子法律草案在夏季休假前提交給德國聯邦議院審議通過,除非歐盟委員會決定予以廢除。
The German cabinet put the finishing touches to its Coal Phase-out Act on Wednesday (24 June), aiming for the draft package of laws to clear the Bundestag before the summer break, unless the European Commission decides to strike it down. EURACTIV Germany reports.
 
部長們商定了對三種不同文本的最終修正案,包括一部關于煤炭區域重組的法律,以及與褐煤發電廠運營商達成的一項協議,這些法律將共同管制德國到2035年逐步淘汰煤炭的進程。
Ministers agreed on final amendments to three different texts, including one law for the restructuring of coal regions, as well as an agreement with operators of lignite power plants, which together will regulate the phase-out of coal in Germany by 2035.
 
上述三個與退煤相關的法案的草案已經在幾個月前提交給德國聯邦議院。周三提交的修正案經由政府各派在國會兩院,即聯邦議院和聯邦參議院協議商定,目的是加快立法進程。
The three draft coal phase-out bills have already been submitted to the Bundestag months ago. The amendments submitted on Wednesday were negotiated between government factions after consultations in the Bundestag and Bundesrat, the two chambers of Parliament, in a bid to speed up the legislative process.
 
《退煤法案》的變化包括更高的拍賣最高價格,經營者可以通過競標方式為關閉其燃煤電廠索取賠償。
Changes to the Coal Phase-out Act include a higher maximum price for auctions in which operators can bid for compensation for the closure of their coal plants.
 
與褐煤發電廠的運營商的協議的最終變更顯然是在一夜之間達成的。與硬煤相比,此項約定包含固定的退出日期,這點此前已與州政府最高領導人以及能源公司達成協議。作為回報,運營商將獲得總計43.5億歐元的補償金。
Final changes to the agreement were apparently agreed overnight with operators of lignite power plants. In contrast to hard coal, the deal contains fixed exit dates, which had  previously been agreed with state premiers and energy companies. In return, operators will receive compensation payments totalling €4.35 billion.
 
NGO ClientEarth的律師韋斯特法爾解釋說,政客與電廠運營商之間的交易主要是為了給雙方提供法律確定性。
The deal between politicians and power plant operators is primarily intended to provide legal certainty to both sides, explains Ida Westphal, a lawyer at NGO ClientEarth.
 
只要能源公司在約定日期之前關閉其褐煤廠,他們就有權獲得賠償。根據該協議,即使二氧化碳價格變化或對《可再生能源法》進行修改,運營商也不會被進一步索賠。
As long as energy companies shut down their lignite plants by the agreed date, they are entitled to compensation payments. Under the deal, operators will not receive any further claims, even if the CO2 price changes or amendments are made to the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG).
 
環境部長斯嘉文· 舒爾茨強調說,該協議明確提到將德國逐步淘汰煤炭的時間提前到2035年而不是2038年,是否可行將在這十年的后半程進行評估。
Environment Minister Svenja Schulze (SPD) emphasised that the agreement explicitly mentions bringing forward Germany’s coal phase-out to 2035 instead of 2038. Whether this is possible is to be reviewed in the later part of this decade.
 
“煤炭退出可以達成,”舒爾茨高興地說道。
“The coal exit can arrive,” Schulze rejoiced. 
 
但是,對于韋斯特法爾而言,協議中并未明確規定運營商是否仍可對2030年后退出的可能性提起訴訟。
For Westphal, however, it is not clearly stated in the agreement whether operators can still sue against the possibility of bringing forward decommissioning after 2030.
 
她還質疑賠償金本身,稱與煤炭經營者的談判是秘密進行的,沒有民間社會團體的參與或審查。
She also questioned the compensation payments themselves, saying negotiations with coal operators took place behind closed doors, with no involvement or scrutiny from civil society groups.
 
正如德國雜志《明鏡周刊》在4月份報道的那樣,褐煤公司LEAG將因其按已經計劃的時間表關閉工廠而獲得17.5億歐元。
As German magazine Der Spiegel reported in April, the lignite company LEAG is set to receive €1.75 billion for shutting down its plants in a timeframe that the company had already planned for anyway.
 
“有必要將補償金額與發電廠的未來獲利能力明確掛鉤,以排除類似選擇。”韋斯特法爾說: “但不幸的是,賠償金的計算公式仍然未知”。
“It is necessary to clearly link the amount of compensation to the future profitability of the power plants to exclude this option,” Westphal said. “But unfortunately the formula for the compensation remains unknown”.
 
根據ClientEarth的說法,德國政府本來應該拒絕賠償電廠所有者。
According to ClientEarth, the German government should have refused to compensate power plant owners in the first place.
 
在寫給舒爾茨和經濟大臣彼得·阿爾特邁爾的信中,環保組織呼吁政府澄清依法停產的情況。根據ClientEarth的說法,這是唯一的方法以防止“簽訂使退煤陷入膠著狀態的合同,因為這對于氣候政策而言已經太遲了,并為運營商提供了超出法律規定的持續運營保證”。
In a letter to Schulze and Economy Minister Peter Altmaier (CDU), the environmental group called on the government to clarify the shutdown by law. According to ClientEarth, this is the only way to prevent “the contracts from cementing a coal phase-out, which is too late anyway in terms of climate policy, and to give the operators a guarantee of continued operation that goes beyond the law.”
 
歐盟委員會將對德國政府與電廠所有者的交易保留最終決定權。歐盟高管將在兩個月內檢查關閉燃煤電廠的賠償金是否符合歐盟國家援助規則,或是否造成市場扭曲。
The European Commission will have the last word on the German government’s deal with power plant owners. Within two months, the EU executive will examine whether the compensation payments for coal plant closures are in line with EU state aid rules or if they constitute a market distortion.
 
韋斯特法爾說:“歐盟委員會的審查將有望表明,絕不能支付這些可怕的款項。”
“The EU Commission’s examination will hopefully show that these horrendous payments must not be made,” Westphal says.

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